Apparently China is. According to Paul Krugman
Last month a Chinese trawler operating in Japanese-controlled waters collided with two vessels of Japanâ€™s Coast Guard. Japan detained the trawlerâ€™s captain; China responded by cutting off Japanâ€™s access to crucial raw materials.
And there was nowhere else to turn: China accounts for 97 percent of the worldâ€™s supply of rare earths, minerals that play an essential role in many high-technology products, including military equipment. Sure enough, Japan soon let the captain go.
I donâ€™t know about you, but I find this story deeply disturbing, both for what it says about China and what it says about us. On one side, the affair highlights the fecklessness of U.S. policy makers, who did nothing while an unreliable regime acquired a stranglehold on key materials. On the other side, the incident shows a Chinese government that is dangerously trigger-happy, willing to wage economic warfare on the slightest provocation.
Some background: The rare earths are elements whose unique properties play a crucial role in applications ranging from hybrid motors to fiber optics. Until the mid-1980s the United States dominated production, but then China moved in.
â€œThere is oil in the Middle East; there is rare earth in China,â€ declared Deng Xiaoping, the architect of Chinaâ€™s economic transformation, in 1992. Indeed, China has about a third of the worldâ€™s rare earth deposits. This relative abundance, combined with low extraction and processing costs â€” reflecting both low wages and weak environmental standards â€” allowed Chinaâ€™s producers to undercut the U.S. industry.
You really have to wonder why nobody raised an alarm while this was happening, if only on national security grounds. But policy makers simply stood by as the U.S. rare earth industry shut down. In at least one case, in 2003 â€” a time when, if you believed the Bush administration, considerations of national security governed every aspect of U.S. policy â€” the Chinese literally packed up all the equipment in a U.S. production facility and shipped it to China.