In the past two weeks, the results of three surveys and studies about the Earth’s climate have been released: a paper on a possible dramatic climate shift, a survey of coral bleaching at the Great Barrier Reef, and a study on the West Antarctic ice sheet. All three investigations tell the story of climate change happening quicker than was previously anticipated. In short the earth isn’t doing well.
The nations of the world agreed years ago to try to limit global warming to a level they hoped would prove somewhat tolerable. But leading climate scientists warned on Tuesday that permitting a warming of that magnitude would actually be quite dangerous.
The likely consequences would include killer storms stronger than any in modern times, the disintegration of large parts of the polar ice sheets and a rise of the sea sufficient to begin drowning the world’s coastal cities before the end of this century, the scientists declared.
“We’re in danger of handing young people a situation that’s out of their control,” said James E. Hansen, the retired NASA climate scientist who led the new research. The findings were released Tuesday morning by a European science journal, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.
A draft version of the paper was released last year, and it provoked a roiling debate among climate scientists. The main conclusions have not changed, and that debate seems likely to be replayed in the coming weeks.
The basic claim of the paper is that by burning fossil fuels at a prodigious pace and pouring heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere, humanity is about to provoke an abrupt climate shift.
Specifically, the authors believe that fresh water pouring into the oceans from melting land ice will set off a feedback loop that will cause parts of the great ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica to disintegrate rapidly.
The paper, written by Dr. Hansen and 18 other authors, dwells on the last time Earth warmed naturally, about 120,000 years ago, when the temperature reached a level estimated to have been only slightly higher than today. Large chunks of the polar ice disintegrated then, and scientists have established that the sea level rose 20 to 30 feet.
Climate scientists agree that humanity is about to cause an equal or greater rise in sea level, but they have tended to assume that such a large increase would take centuries, at least. The new paper argues that it could happen far more rapidly, with the worst case being several feet of sea-level rise over the next 50 years, followed by increases so precipitous that they would force humanity to beat a hasty retreat from the coasts.
Scientists who have dedicated their careers to studying the reef and its ecosystem say the current bleaching is unprecedented, and perhaps unrecoverable. The emotion in their responses so far have been palpable.
“I witnessed a sight underwater that no marine biologist, and no person with a love and appreciation for the natural world for that matter, wants to see,” said Australian coral scientist Jodie Rummer in a statement, after spending more than a month at a monitoring station in the Great Barrier Reef.
Though corals comprise only about 0.2 percent of the global oceans, they support perhaps a quarter of all marine species. There’s about 400 years of coral growth rings in the Great Barrier Reef, though no evidence of widespread bleaching before 1998. The current bleaching is the third major episode since then, and the worst yet—driven by the record-setting El Niño and steadily increasing ocean temperatures triggered by human-caused climate change.
“What we’re seeing now is unequivocally to do with climate change,” Justin Marshall, a reef scientist from the University of Queensland, told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Nick Heath, a representative of the World Wildlife Fund in Brisbane, Australia, lamented that “we have been so complacent on this issue for so long” in an interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. He added that he hopes the current mass bleaching would “trigger us out of our complacency.”
“This will change the Great Barrier Reef forever,” Terry Hughes, the Australian coral scientist who has been conducting the aerial survey, told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Hughes said the bleaching was his “worst nightmare” and expects about half the affected coral to die in the coming months. “This has been the saddest research trip of my life,” he said in a statement. More than sadness, though, Hughes said he feels anger at the Australian government, who he thinks should have acted sooner to prevent the current situation.
And just yesterday, a study on the West Antarctic ice sheet was released that says the ice sheet could melt much faster than previously thought, raising global sea levels by 3 feet in less than 90 years. Even the normally staid NY Times is getting really nervous.
For half a century, climate scientists have seen the West Antarctic ice sheet, a remnant of the last ice age, as a sword of Damocles hanging over human civilization.
The great ice sheet, larger than Mexico, is thought to be potentially vulnerable to disintegration from a relatively small amount of global warming, and capable of raising the sea level by 12 feet or more should it break up. But researchers long assumed the worst effects would take hundreds — if not thousands — of years to occur.
Now, new research suggests the disaster scenario could play out much sooner.
Continued high emissions of heat-trapping gases could launch a disintegration of the ice sheet within decades, according to a studypublished Wednesday, heaving enough water into the ocean to raise the sea level as much as three feet by the end of this century.
With ice melting in other regions, too, the total rise of the sea could reach five or six feet by 2100, the researchers found. That is roughly twice the increase reported as a plausible worst-case scenario by a United Nations panel just three years ago, and so high it would likely provoke a profound crisis within the lifetimes of children being born today.
In major East Coast cities, where land is sinking at the same time that seas are rising, an independent analysis by Climate Central shows that the rapid Antarctic melting described by the new modeling effort would push tide levels up by between five and six feet this century alone.
Climate Central’s analysis combined mid-range values from the new projections for Antarctic melting with previous mid-range projections regarding global sea level rise, along with local factors such as sinking that naturally occurs in some areas. It illuminated the dangerous collective impacts of the different ways that climate change is expected to affect sea levels.
If climate pollution is quickly and dramatically reined in, the analysis shows sea level rise in major East Coast cities, including New York, Boston and Baltimore, could be kept to less than two feet — which could nonetheless see developed stretches of shorelines regularly or permanently flooded.
Problems associated with sea level rise are expected to be worse in Louisiana, where stretches of land are being lost to erosion caused by flood control projects and gas and oil exploration. New Orleans could see more than seven feet of sea level rise by 2100, Climate Central’s analysis of the new findings showed.
West Coast cities would experience four to five feet of sea level rise by 2100, Climate Central found.
The reality is that most of the world’s leaders are still making half assed attempts of change or in the case of our Premier, wants all climate change proposals to pass an economic test. Miami is going to disappear, there is a drought so bad in California that the land is actually sinking and Saskatchewan has no climate plan other than a carbon capture program whose main goal is to enable fracking.
When do we realize we are all in this together and that is going to sacrifices on all of our part. Technology isn’t going to save us. Innovation isn’t going to save us. It’s going to be all of us changing the way we live. What are the chances of that happening? Sadly about zero.
There are communities that have successfully made the shift to building more compact, walkable developments, even in the most unlikely places. Some of the most excessive sprawl during the housing boom, for instance, occurred in the inland areas of Northern California, places like Brentwood, Antioch, Vacaville. But those areas are now rethinking what kind of building they want to allow, and what kind they don’t.
â€œThere was, up until 2008, a profound overbuilding of single-family homes,â€ Jeremy Madsen, with the Greenbelt Alliance, a Bay Area smart-growth group, told me. â€œThe â€˜drive ’til you qualifyâ€™ syndrome ran rampant in the Bay Area.â€
Now, many of these developments are half empty or unfinished, waiting for demand to come backâ€”if it ever will. But cities in the Bay Area are starting to put in urban-growth boundaries, which prevent building from happening outside of that area. Voters handily defeated a proposal to allow developers to build on Doolan Canyon, an open space outside of the city of Dublinâ€™s urban-growth boundary. In the city of Windsor, in Sonoma County, a new-urbanist developer decided to create a downtown and built a mixed-use combination of offices, retail, and homes near a transit station. And a planning commission in Stockton, another epicenter of the housing boom and bust, recently said no to developers who wanted approval to build 2,000 homes on what is currently farmland, the first-time observers could remember the commission doing so.
Even San Jose, once considered just a giant suburb of San Francisco, has shifted its mentality, Madsen said. The cityâ€™s newest general plan, adopted in 2011, emphasizes â€˜smart growthâ€™ and called for the growth of â€˜urban villagesâ€™ located along current and future transit lines. It promotes infill development rather than sprawling out to open lands, aims to reduce the number of trips that have to be made by car, and rethinks street design to encourage walking and biking.
â€œI think weâ€™ve moved into a different era in the Bay Area in term of how we’re going to grow in the future,â€ Madsen told me. “The consumer preference side of things appears to be changing.”
But, he said, even though leaders and consumers might be on the same page, it isn’t going to be easy, since a lot of the zoning and building layouts are from the old era. â€œThereâ€™s going to be a major challenge when it comes to implementing this shift, but thereâ€™s a critical mass of opinion and market direction to get it going,â€ he said. Itâ€™s easy to dismiss the Bay Areaâ€™s plans as another California anomaly. But California often leads the rest of the country when it comes to adopting environmentally-friendly policies that are sustainable for the long term.
Other areas may continue to eschew ‘smart growth,’ and just as America is divided politically, it could become a more divided country in the way its residents live. People in cities such as Washington D.C., Boston, and Seattle, will want more walkable developments, while consumers in what Leinberger calls â€œthe laggards,â€ including Phoenix, Dallas, and Las Vegas, will continue to live in sprawling suburbs.
But it’s also possible that Boomers and Millennials in the laggard cities will come around. After all, even in Las Vegas and Atlanta, some builders are starting to shift their mentality. Zappos founder Tony Hsieh has poured $350 million into downtown Las Vegas, creating a shopping center built from shipping containers, mixed-use residential development, and a host of walkable amenities like a donut shop and a bookstore. And in Atlanta, a developer is in the midst of converting a former Sears building near downtown to a mixed-use community of apartments, restaurants, and retail.
Not everyone will want to live in downtown environments like these. But if they’re appealing to consumers, they could motivate a whole new segment of buying, even in cities such as Las Vegas and Atlanta. If consumers come around to â€œsmart growthâ€ in those areas, perhaps builders will too.
In fashioning a campaign dominated by locals, the committee also hammered in another cornerstone: opposition to the Olympics is seen as a display of insufficient civic pride. Even elected officials who harbor deep misgivings about the Games â€” due to its expected cost, security risks, or potential for embarrassing mismanagement â€” say privately that they keep their fears quiet so as not to trigger any backlash.
One state lawmaker likened criticism of the Olympic plan to speaking in favor of an enemy nation during a time of war, saying it seemed â€œunpatriotic.â€
Just as adroitly, the Olympic organizers resisted the outcry from the disclosure and anti-secret-government crowd to release even a morsel of their formal planning before the US Olympic Committee decided on Boston. This provided a tactical edge, because there were no specific projects to oppose or price tags about which to kvetch. Potential critics had nothing at which to shoot. That ends next week when the bid documents become public, and 2024 organizers present their early thinking under a bright media glare in a public meeting.
And I guess politicians who only care about their own political self-interests. Â I thought Boston reminded me of Saskatoon.
The United States Olympic Committee has chosen Boston to be its entry in a global competition to host the 2024 Olympic Games, putting its faith in an old city that is brand new to the Olympic movement.
The USOC announced Thursday after a meeting at Denver International Airport that it will back Bostonâ€™s Olympic bid over those from San Francisco, Washington, D.C., and two-time Olympic host Los Angeles.
With the vote, Boston vaults into an unfamiliar, high-profile position on the international sports stage. During the next two-and-a-half years, it will be part of a competition that could include some of the most significant cities in the world: Paris, Rome, Hamburg or Berlin, Budapest, and Istanbul. There could be competition from South Africa, from Doha in Qatar, from Baku in Azerbaijan, and from other cities or regions attracted by new rules intended to make it easier to host the Games. A winner will be chosen in 2017.
Scott Blackmun, USOC chief executive, said that the decision was â€œgut-wrenchingâ€ for the panel but that Boston came out on top in part due to the business people and elected officials who drove the effort.
â€œOne of the great things about the Boston bid was that the bid leadership and the political leadership were on the same page,â€ Blackmun said, in an exclusive Globe interview at the Denver airport.
So Boston becomes the latest city to strive to go deeply into debt to build host a corrupt games. Â Hilariously the say that it will be a privately funded games. Â No public money needed. Â Iâ€™ll believe it when I see it.
Some sane advice from the Calgary Herald who points out that railing about the Prime Ministerâ€™s use of a Government of Canada Challenger Jet.
All parties have been guilty of this and it is time to stop the partisan finger-pointing. Regardless of what party is in power, the prime minister should be allowed some perks. Harper flew to Boston on the private Challenger jet -for security, the RCMP insists that all prime ministers do so -along with his daughter Rachel and Heritage Minister James Moore, who is from B.C. Good for them.
U.S. presidents go to baseball games and play golf. JFK and Jackie sailed off Nantucket with their kids and nobody raised a fuss. Any leader, left, right, or centre, should be allowed a little leisure time. It’s a brutal job. Prime Ministers are on the job 24/7. Get over it.
Canadians have become so picayune it’s ridiculous. Harper was even criticized for attending the Winter Olympics in Vancouver. What nonsense.
The prime minister’s official residence at 24 Sussex Drive is crumbling and in need of $10 million in repairs. Just do it. We’ve spent more than $1 billion renovating the Parliament Buildings. Good. It’s time for Canadians to take some pride in their official buildings, and in their top elected positions, regardless of political stripe.
I have been on one of the Government of Canadaâ€™s private jets (some photosfromthe2006 Canada Remembers Air Show) and itâ€™s not exactly Air Force One. Itâ€™s cramped and uncomfortable and to be honest, a first class flight on an Air Canada Airbus would be more comfortable but itâ€™s done for security reasons but every time it happens, the opposition freaks out over the cost because (gasp) the Prime Minister is having a little fun.
Itâ€™s the same way about 24 Sussex Drive. It needs repairs but no one wants to be the one that says that we need to fix up the place. As Harper said, â€œitâ€™s good enough for meâ€ because of the political attacks that would happen if he was the one that ordered the repairs so we let the official residence of the Prime Minister of Canada deteriorate a little further each year.
They eventually added a sports website, with streaming audio.
RSS hadnâ€™t caught on yet so the readers had to actually visit the site.
This photo was taken during the epic 1912 World Series (first 7 games series to go 8 games and first World Series to come down to the final inning). The practice continued into the 1960s. Here is the 1945 headline of FDRâ€™s death.
When we moved to Saskatoon in the mid-80s, there was a magazine called Western Living that we received and it listed the Sturdy Stone Centre as one of the ugliest buildings in Western Canada (Moose Jaw’s crushed can was also on that list). I am not a big fan of brutalist architecture either downtown or elsewhere in the city (the same firm designed the College of Education building) and the Sturdy Stone Centre falls into that category.
My point in all of this is to show what happens when a city doesn€™t have or take itâ€™s own design guidelines seriously. While the Study Stone Centre does have street life aspects incorporated into it, the Federated Co-op building does not. When these are absent or ignored (like the city is doing in the warehouse district), you get left with cold impersonal buildings that are defined more by parking lots rather than what they contribute to city life. I keep thinking the city has learned itâ€™s lesson but then again by looking at some of the latest developments take form, maybe not.
The truth is that a city is the one that creates it’s architectural ethos. Years ago I was in Chicago when strongman Mayor Richard Daly threatened to halt new developments unless the architecture improved and met city guidelines. When I was in Toronto and I wandered through the Allen Lambert Galleria, which came as a result of the city of Torontos public art requirements. Even Martinsville has a neighbourhood with some architectural controls in it (must have stucco). A city can lay down standards and expect that they are followed.
A quick look at 275 2nd Avenue South shows that not only can projects meet city design guidelines, they can surpass them (in this case going for LEED Gold Certification). A decade ago the city was desperate for new development but things have changed and how we handle the prosperity will shape the city for decades if not longer. Is the next 75 years going to be dominated by buildings sitting on parking garages or something better?
"Like slavery and apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings." Nelson Mandela
This is the third in a series on poverty, homelessness, and a concentration of services in Saskatoonâ€™s inner city. You can find part 1 and part 2 in the archives.
Poverty in Saskatoon
Poverty looks different in different cities. In North American where food costs are more or less similar, you have five factors that influence where you are in relation to the the poverty line that I am going to look at.
Saskatoon does have high rent. A one bedroom apartment on the east side of the city will run you $1000/month. While there are cheaper apartments, most of those are located in the cityâ€™s core neighbourhoods. As housing prices have doubled and tripled, rents have done the same. A quick survey of friends who are renting often described at least a $100/month rental increase last January 1st with a notice of another one coming this January 1st. $200/month increase over one year is very difficult for any family no matter where you are in the economic spectrum.
While Saskatoon Transit does a good job (unless we have had snow or you want to get to the airport), Saskatoon is a city based on freeways and driving. While some American cities like Boston have been shaped by their subways, Saskatoon has been shaped by our cars which means that city attractions and commercial districts are shaped by parking, not ease of access for public access. The Ministry of Social Services has made it easier for itâ€™s clients to get around by making available bus passes for $20/month. A regular adult bus pass is $71.00 and a single trip ticket is $2.75 which seems high but when compared to rates in New York, Boston, or Toronto, itâ€™s about the same.
So Saskatoon has reasonably priced transportation, SaskEnergy does a decent job of hedging natural gas prices to keep our natural gas rates stable rather than fluctuating and food prices are what they are. While we may not like the idea of Wal-Mart dominating the world, their entrance into Saskatoon does keep food prices lower (and makes it even harder for downtown grocery stores to compete). One factor with food prices that gets overlooked is accessibility to reasonably priced food. While Wal-Mart may have the best price on a block of cheese in town, if it costs you a lot to get there, it doesnâ€™t help. Iâ€™ll talk some more about this in a moment.
While family income trends tell us about how many people in Saskatchewan are doing in absolute terms, it is important to examine the ability of the income to provide a reasonable quality of life. Statistics Canadaâ€™s Low Income Cut-Offs (LICOs) are widely used to measure poverty in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2006b; Canadian Council on Social Development, n.d.). Statistics Canada (2006c) defines the LICO as the income level at which a family spends 20% more of their income on food, shelter, and clothing than the average family of a comparable size. In 2005, the after-tax LICO was $22,069 per year for a family of three living in a community of 100,000 to 499,999 people and $27,532 per year for a family of four (Statistics Canada, 2006c). In the same year, the poverty line for families in rural areas was $17,071 for a three-person family and $21,296 for a four-person family (Statistics Canada, 2006c). At incomes at or below LICO levels, Saskatchewan residents are using substantially more of their available income to acquire the basics of life compared to their fellow citizens.
CUISR went out and created a snapshot of what low income families in Saskatchewan look like.
Saskatchewanâ€™s Aboriginal citizens and families are consistently overrepresented in low income indicators. Although Aboriginal people have made significant gains in the last 20 years compared to other provincial groups, Statistics Canadaâ€™s 2006 Census data indicate that 37% of Saskatchewanâ€™s Aboriginal population was living at or below the LICO (Statistics Canada, 2008a) and Canadian Council on Social Development, n.d.). While this represented a large improvement of 16 percentage points relative to the 1996 Census, Aboriginal peoples continue to experience a much higher poverty level when compared to all persons in Saskatchewan.
When looking at the income levels for people on Social Services CUISR found this
When examining Saskatchewanâ€™s social assistance incomes, an overall decrease in the last decade is evident. Between 1996 and 2005, social assistance incomes eroded in real terms among all recipient groups, by more than 7%; the welfare incomes of people with disabilities on social assistance experienced the greatest drop (by 15.5%).
It should be noted that Saskatchewan raised its social assistance rates in 2008; currently, a single employable person in Saskatoon or Regina would qualify for a benefit of about $8,000 (See Appendix II).
At the end of the day the average Canadian single mother who is below the poverty line is below it by about $7500. When people talk about people living below the poverty line, they are not missing it by a dollar or two.
In my last post, I showed income breakdowns for Saskatoonâ€™s core neighbourhoods. To recap there are 1726 households trying to love on under $15,000 a year and another 1567 households trying to get by under $30,000 a year? Of those families, a staggering 780 of them are trying to get by on under $10,000 per year. How do they live?
Many of the householdâ€™s living under $15,000 a year are either on Social Services, struggling by on part time employment or on Social Services (either SAP or TEA). If you are living on Social Services, your income is going to be a lot less than $15,000/year. Check out the current Social Services rate card and do the math on how little money that is.
As the Social Services Rate Card shows, you see that there is around $459 for rent (more on that later) and $255 to cover food, toiletries, clothes, bills, and others. That isnâ€™t a lot of money but it wasnâ€™t until I had it broken down for me by a budget management worker that I realized how little it was.
Months ago I had some staff break down the Social Services rate card. With the new womenâ€™s shelter coming online soon, I wanted them to come up with a move out formula that would actually work. Since many of the men and women we deal with are defined as â€œunemployableâ€ by Social Services, we needed to help them find a way to live within that financial framework. We couldnâ€™t find a way of making it in the slightest without using services provided by the Saskatoon Food Bank, the Friendship Inn, and the Salvation Army. As I reviewed our notes the other day, I saw that we didnâ€™t take into consideration tobacco consumption which makes a really tough financial situation even worse. Here is what we learnedâ€¦
Impact of Housing Costs
If you are single you have $255 a month after your rent (or most of it) is paid. If you have health concerns like diabetes or a disease like HIV, you get more to cover proper nutrition. That doesnâ€™t sound that bad. I have had three different budget management workers/trustees from different agencies have told me that one can live on that amount as long as the person doesnâ€™t make a single mistake. That amount includes a discounted bus pass and free Leisure Card and your rent is paidâ€¦ that is if you can somewhere to rent for your allocated amount. Now now problems start.
You can technically live anywhere in town (and therefore leave the inner city behind) but you have some problems. First of all there is the Rental Supplement which you have to qualify for and in todayâ€™s rental market you need the Rental Supplement. To qualify for the Rental Supplement, your location in the city (in part) determines whether or not you get it and how much you get. The reality is that if you are living in Riversdale, Pleasant Hill, and areas closer to St. Paulâ€™s or another hospital, increases your chances to get the supplement. Now if you donâ€™t qualify, you need have pay the difference from your personal allowance. This is going to increase your need on services like the Saskatoon Food Bank, The Salvation Army Community Services, Friendship Inn, and other agencies which actually encourages you to live in walking distance to them. Of course even if you do find a place that rents to you, the Ministry of Social Services letter of guarantee is only for the amount of money that you are allowed for housing, which means that you have to come up with the rest in cash to cover your damage deposit. The current system actually encourages a concentration of services and poverty.
Even if you can afford to move into a different part of town, the landlords may not want you there. A client I helped find an apartment for was charged a $50 â€œviewing feeâ€ to see an apartment. I havenâ€™t met anyone yet who didnâ€™t see that as an attempt to keep people receiving Social Service benefits from seeing the building. Over a period of three or four months, this client, myself, and another social worker was stood up numerous times by landlords on viewings, largely because the client was on Social Services. I was there when the client was told to his face that they â€œprobably wonâ€™t rent to someone on welfareâ€. We had some staff from AIDS Saskatoon in a while ago talking to our staff and we also learned that some landlords are doing a kind of credit check on clients to decide if the client can â€œaffordâ€ the apartment. I was shocked but itâ€™s a story we have heard lots since then. Are any of us surprised that their formula disqualifies low income/Social Services clients? Of course not all landlords are like that. I have met some wonderful ones who are all over the city. In fact the client who I was talking about was helped by a landlord who went out of their way to get this client and family into their apartment because they saw it as the right thing to do. Yet on the other hand we are kidding ourselves if we donâ€™t think that there are some Donald Sterlingesqe landlords out there who are making it very tough on people because of race or class in the city. (if you got the Donald Sterling reference without clicking on the link, I am impressed).
Of course moving in only part of the journey. I was also shocked to find out there are no more move in grants. No money for beds, mop, broom, cleaning supplies, SHOWER CURTAIN, pots and pans. I have access to the donations given to the Salvation Army Community Services (we have a dock for a reason) and all of that was free but even after all of that was said and done, Wendy and I dropped $100 of our own money for essentials and believe me, there was nothing on that list that all of us would not consider an essential.
To be fair there is another alternative to move in grants, if you are on Social Services, you can apply for a twice a year advance of $240 and that would help them set up an apartment but that money comes off their check $40 a month over six months (which takes down the $255/month to $215/month). If for some reason you donâ€™t qualify for the Rental Supplement, you have to pay the difference in rent out of your personal living allowance. Your $255 can quickly become $100. One budget management worker I talked to told me that she practically begs her clients not to take this $240 â€œwindfallâ€ because of the financial problems it can cause later on for them.
Eating Right on Social Services
So you have $255 (or $215 or $100) each month (now there are extra resources if you have selected medical issues) which is anywhere from $53 to $65 (or $25) per week for groceries, hygiene products, and clothes. That causes itâ€™s own problems because where do you get that stuff in Riversdale/Pleasant Hill? There are no low priced grocery stores in easy walking distance (although there is now one downtown and a small Asian food store on 20h) which makes it difficult to get ahead because you donâ€™t have the resources to buy anything in bulk or take advantage of savings at Costco, Real Canadian Wholesale Club or even Co-opâ€™s big case lot sale? Again you have a lack of financial margin and you have a lack of accessibility to do purchases like this. While Saskatoon has a whole has more vehicles than residents,according to 2006 census data the core neighborhoods have 0.4 cars per person. When I worked at 33rd Street Safeway, once a month we saw a steady stream of cabs pulling up as people on Social Services bought groceries. You have two problems with that happening. A small grocery amount is made a lot smaller by having to take a cab to Safeway (or Supertore/Walmart/Extra Foods/Sobeys) for groceries and you have that money leaving the area (and area that is in need of that money). An even worse decision is those who do their grocery stopping at a convenience store. A couple of times when I worked the 4-12 shift at the Salvation Army, I would run low on change which makes it hard for the front desk to make change for clients who come in and buy breakfast (best $3 breakfast in the city). Once I stopped by a convenience store on the day checks were handed out. I honestly thought a riot had gone through the store. It wasnâ€™t, it was people purchasing groceries. I canâ€™t think of a quicker way to make an already small check, even smaller. Thankfully this has changed somewhat since Giant Tiger came to town but you still have no fresh fruit and vegetables. While I probably could have lived on Giant Tigerâ€™s selection when I was single (Kraft Dinner, Ichiban noodles, Pizza Popsâ€¦ repeat), it is lacking a lot of stuff that families need and there isnâ€™t the money left over to even purchase a Good Food Box from CHEP.
The other part of the equation that food is a commodity and therefore subject to price fluctuations and is really sensitive to other commodity prices, such as oil. All of this is explained in detail in Why Your World Is About to Get a Whole Lot Smaller by Jeff Rubin and The Long Emergency by James Kunstler who point out the impact that higher oil prices have on farm input costs. As oil goes up, so does fuel for machineries, cost of fertilizers, and more crops get moved from being a food crop and become a fuel crop for ethanol (unlike Brazil which had the foresight not to use a food crop for ethanol, we decided to use corn and maize here, largely in deference to the importance that Iowa places in Presidential primaries). The basic math is higher energy prices equals higher food prices.
Three years ago when gas prices spiked to abnormally high prices we saw the impact on our clientele at work. We went from about 60,000 served meals a year to close to 100,000 meals served a year. Not only were people hit hard by rising energy prices, they were hit hard by the increase in food prices. All around the city you saw charts in restaurants explaining why their prices were going up and why they had to charge more to bring in some more revenue to pay for it. The same thing happened here but the people who used our services didnâ€™t have the option of increasing revenue. We just did an in house survey of why people come to the Salvation Army meal program and the dominant answer given was, â€œno food at homeâ€ and this is a program designed for people who are not receiving benefits from the Ministry of Social Services (and therefore hopefully have more resources). I wish we had done one a couple of years ago. I assume the numbers would have been much, much, higher.
The Lack of Discretionary Income
So even if you have money for food and rent, there are still other expensesâ€¦ like laundry is another big issue. You get $10 if you are single for laundry and soap and $20 if you are a family. The problem is that a lot of apartments charge $3 for a load and in case you havenâ€™t noticed, there are not a lot of laundromats in town. When we were looking at countless duplexes and fourplexes while trying to find a place for the Mumford House, many houses had a bed room filled five or six feet high full of clothes. That same summer I joined a co-worker to check out a house that had been set on fire (she didnâ€™t want to get punched in the face by the landlord so she brought me along to get punched in the face â€“ luckily for my face, he was pretty cool and not prone to violence). Again in the basement there was clothes piled high enough that neither one us could walk upright down there. Later it finally clicked in that it was cheaper to come to the Salvation Army or the Food Bank every couple of weeks and just get different clothes rather than doing laundry. Anything to save some money.
My point is that, you can make it as long as you donâ€™t make a mistake which in the end, is the Government of Saskatchewanâ€™s goal. Coming up with Social Services rates is tricky business. If you set the amount too low, people just canâ€™t live but if you have too high of an amount, it discourages people from working and you can really upset voters. In the end you get stuck with the number that we have now. Just barely enough for someone to live and definitely not comfortably.
This takes a toll not only on individuals but also on a community if in high enough concentration.
As for the family, I understand a bit of that. My mom raised a family of four of us on $1350 a month plus what we got for Family Allowance. $700 of that was mortgage and the rest was just paying for life. From 1988-89, we kind of totally disengaged from society because we had no money at all. We didnâ€™t go out, we didnâ€™t take weekend trips, we didnâ€™t do anything. There was just no money. We were involved in the church but even things like youth group took money and so I didnâ€™t attend those weeks. Our summer vacation consisted of a trip to a used bookstore on Primrose Drive. They sold a two cubic foot box of books for $1. There was a bunch of Harlequin Books but there was other cool stuff as wellâ€¦ university textbooks, Instant Replay by Jerry Kramer, The Game by Ken Dryden and The Winds of War by Herman Wouk. We went three times and our expenditures outside of bills that summer was a total of $3. That was it. That was all of the extra money we had. I find myself looking back it with some nostalgia but it was a horrible summer and a part of a grind that went on and on and on.
It isnâ€™t just one single thing that poverty does, it just grinds you down day by day by day. My mother was diabetic and living under that kind of financial stress does not lend itself to eating well. She started a downward spiral that took her leg and later contributed to her inability to fight the cancer. Diabetes is called a â€œdisease of povertyâ€ and as a Type II diabetic I understand that now more than I ever did then. On top of the food that is diabetic friendly (which isnâ€™t cheap), I now spend $100/month to control the nerve pain. Neuragen and Alpha Lipolic acid arenâ€™t covered by the Saskatchewan Drug Plan (while highly addictiveOxycontin which does nothing for the pain was covered). Poor quality food, inadequate diabetic care, and enormous stress. I didnâ€™t realize it at the time but in a lot of ways, those years changed all of us for the worse. We withdrew from our community, our friends, and an edge developed that has probably stuck with me for far too long. There wasnâ€™t one thing that did it, we just got ground down and that was only a couple of years of it.
We have seen the impact on poverty on an entire region. One of the most enjoyable things I had the opportunity to do while as the pastor of Lakeland Church in Spiritwood was listening to some of the older members of the church tell their stories of the Great Depression. Those stories all started light hearted and funny and then turned serious and sombre as the years took their tool and the stories got darker. Donâ€™t take my word for it, read Pierre Bertonâ€™s book, The Great Depression and read the stories yourself. If you are looking for a current version of it, read this eye opening series called The New Poor in the New York Times.
Gang activity is commonplace among disadvantaged minority groups including Afro-American, Hispanic and aboriginal groups. They are drawn together by a sense of race, protection and shared experience. When the economic and social doors are closed or hard to open, people tend to turn to illegal activity as a quick fix. Couple this with drug and alcohol addiction and you have the recipe for young people to group together in gangs.
Gang life is hard with few real rewards. Recruiters let the uninitiated think that in a gang they will get the iPod, the fancy car and other status symbols. Gang activities include violence, robbery, prostitution and drug dealing. In the end the reality is nothing compared to the dream presented by the gang recruiters.
When gang members reach their late 20s they have no education or work experience, they have rap sheets as long as their arms and they most likely have a drug problem. They are burned out and unemployable.
And those are the lucky ones. Some will be killed and still others will do life for murder or other long stretches for their crimes. The dream of the 15-year-old for power and wealth is gone and it never existed.
One of the things that have bothered me as I read The Life and Death of the American City by urban theorist Jane Jacobs is that she speaks of a strong neighbourhood bond is needed to maintain safety and prosperity in a community. I kept wondered what happened to it in parts of Saskatoon. The answer is found in bits and pieces in a variety of books I read this summer (at the end of this series Iâ€™ll post a reading list if you want to read more) but the short answer is that poverty grinds away those ties that keep a community together, especially when poverty is concentrated. (which I think is at the core of what Pat Lorje is saying and something Iâ€™ll spend some time exploring when I post the next post in this series Monday night).
A decade ago there wasnâ€™t the need for the concentration of poverty in Saskatoon. In 1997, a great apartment I had in a fun part of City Park went for $250 a month. I was making a little over minimum wage working at Burron Lumber. The combination of low rent, great location, and a simple lifestyle (bills were food, phone, and $268 car payment) meant that despite making minimum wage, I had money to spend. I watched every Rider game at Seafood Samâ€™s with a pacing, anxious, chain smoking Sam himself living and dying with every Saskatchewan Roughriders win and loss, and we used to walk down to a downtown coffee shop named Nervous Harold’s many nights for a iced coffee and a late supper. By choice I didnâ€™t have a television but I had money to spend to enjoy life around Saskatoon. I donâ€™t have any vices but I think I could have even afforded to smoke a bit. Today that very small one room apartment is going for almost $800/month, which is more than my mortgage. To find an affordable apartment on minimum wage, I canâ€™t live in City Park unless I want to pick up a second job which grinds one down in a different way. Over the years both Wendy and I have worked two jobs when we have needed to. What seems sustainable at first slowly grinds you down in different ways and you have that same kind of withdrawal from your community, often from fatigue and exhaustion. Again back to Doug Cuthandâ€™s comments.
When the economic and social doors are closed or hard to open, people tend to turn to illegal activity as a quick fix.
This was best articulated to me when I was at a Correctional Services of Canada seminar on womenâ€™s corrections. One of the things that was mentioned throughout the day was what many women in poverty will have to do to survive. It ranges from robbery, prostitution, drug dealingâ€¦ the illegal activities that we all see in Saskatoon but never really get to what is really causing them. When caught in poverty, you have to turn somewhere. I have heard the police talk about prostitutes starting working the street and losing their virginity to johns at 13. The girls often recruit each other as they see it as a good source of easy money without ever having the chance to realize the cost they are about to pay. Again, its the pursuit of the iPods, cars, or as I wrote about a couple of years ago, even food. There is what Cuthand said, an easy turn to the riches that gangs offer up (read the first chapter of Freakonomics to see that most gangs pay very poorly at the bottom of the pyramid). Or there is a turn to substance abuseâ€¦ beer, hard liquor, crack, meth, modelling glue, solvents, paint, Lysol, Listerine, methadone, hand sanitizer, you name it, I have seen it abused. It starts out as an escape and turns into a prison and later a personal version of hell.
This kind of aligns itself with a conversation I had a with a local politician who said to me that they were surprised at the level of racial anger they have heard lately. Being married to someone of mixed Guyanese descent (Amerindian, Bihari, British, and Black according to her DNA tests), racism has always both interested and concerns me. Racism (which is going both ways) seems to be coming out the micro economic future that people are looking at. Itâ€™s their personal economy that doesnâ€™t work. Income doesnâ€™t cover rent or food which creates a lack of hope. Soon the the despair sets in, especially when you realize that hard work wonâ€™t deliver you out of this and it gives to anger and a need to blame someone else. You see this in American political and race rhetoric. How many times did Lou Dobbs say, â€œThese Mexican illegal’s are taking good American jobsâ€ which ignores the fact that Americanâ€™s donâ€™t want them and the jobs arenâ€™t very good in the first place. Is it a coincidence that Romaâ€™s in France are being persecuted during a time of difficult economic times?
During the times that my family was at our poorest and things looked extremely bleak, I never had any doubt that eventually life would turn around and things were going to be better one day if I worked hard. To use Doug Cuthandâ€™s language, the door was pretty easy to open. My first apartment was in a prime downtown neighbourhood for $250 and affordable with a minimum wage job. Your options are limited today if you do not have what many would define as a high paying job or are a one wage earning household.
I have spent hours this week trying to articulate the change in the residents of the shelter over the last four years. It clicked in today that the difference was that there has been a loss of hope. The wages havenâ€™t changed but everything else has gotten more expensive and less accessible. While I have only lived in Saskatoon since 1984, I have been here long enough to see some bad times before the good times hit. While a large majority of Saskatoon has benefitted from the economic prosperity that has come to Saskatoon. Not all have. Of course the question that all cities have is, â€œwhatâ€™s the best way to address this?â€ Iâ€™ll start looking at solutions on Tuesday.
Several years ago I was in Boston and staying at the Midtown Hotel when it started on fire.
As we were wandering out of the front door, these rather round, handlebar wearing mustache, firemen come waddling in to put out the fire. You would expect these firemen to have their game faces on as they were facing danger and fire. Nope. This is what they said as we walked out the lobby and the first fireman came in. â€œI hate dat Derak Jeter too!â€ Only in Boston would a firemanâ€™s hatred for the New York Yankees and Derek Jeter takes their focus away from fighting a fire.
A couple of years ago when we were in Boston for Soularize, our hotel had a little (kind of big) fire in it. As we were exiting, some Boston firemen were entering the building with axes and theirfire hose. I was expecting them to have their game faces on and be in the zone to fight whatever danger they would face but no, this is what we heard as we left and they entered the fire, “I hate dat Derek Jeter too.”
I was out tonight and I saw a McFarlane Derek Jeter figurine on sale and it brought back all of these warm (pun intended) memories of Boston and to remind me that somewhere in Boston right now is an overweight Boston firefighter with a handlebar mustache hating Derek Jeter when he should be concentrating on his job.
I also noticed that he had done up a Calgary Flames Grant Fuhr figurine as well. It looked pretty accurate but it had one mistake, he was actually stopping the puck. Calgary Flames know that didn’t really ever happen when he was in Calgary.