The communities created by the Chicago Housing Authority were all, by current wisdom, destined to fail. The new-built estates were large and isolated â€“ Regent Park-style low-rises punctuated with high-rise towers. They were overwhelmingly black communities, drawn from the tenements on Chicagoâ€™s South Side and migrants from the southern US. They were not mixed-income communities either. The CHA selected families â€“ one third of them women-led — exclusively from the bottom third of the income scale.
An incubator for leadership
Yet Fuerst credits public housing for creating Chicagoâ€™s black middle class, providing an â€œincubator for leadershipâ€ for African Americans. Account after account describes the children of stockyard workers and unemployed widows who are now lawyers, teachers, business leaders, police officers and senior public officials.
What made Chicago Housing Authority a launching pad to success? The tenantsâ€™ stories are filled with praise for the clean, well-managed buildings and grounds, where prizes were given for the best gardens. They spoke about housing managers who knew everyoneâ€™s name, encouraged local initiatives, and found jobs for teenagers. They spoke about the schools, churches, clubs, sports teams, and womensâ€™ associations that were integral to the communityâ€™s strength. And they talked about the community itself, where everyone would look out for local children, and did not hesitate to pick up the phone if they spotted trouble.
Today, public housing in Chicago and elsewhere is seen as anything but paradise. What went wrong?
The answers offered by the CHAâ€™s former residents and staff will induce squirms in Torontoâ€™s right- and left-wing readers alike. Here they are:
Abandoning tenant screening.
In CHAâ€™s early days, preference was given to applicants with the lowest incomes in the worst housing conditions. But only those prepared to pay their rent, keep their homes clean, and supervise their children were accepted.
Once in the housing, the management strictly enforced standards, and so did other tenants. As one tenant recalled, â€œWe kids cleaned those halls. And if somebody messed up our hall, we were quick to tell them, â€˜Get that paper off that floor. Donâ€™t you do that on my stairs, cause I got to clean it Saturday.â€™â€
By the 1970s, federal rules forced CHA to give preference to the poorest of the poor, with no other screening. Today, tenants and former tenants quoted in the book say that â€œdestructive and dangerousâ€ tenants â€“ anywhere from 10 – 30 per cent of tenants â€“ need to be evicted to allow a return to healthy community life. Draconian as this move is, they argue it would be less disruptive than Chicagoâ€™s current practice of evicting all tenants to demolish entire buildings.