"Like slavery and apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings." Nelson Mandela
Poverty in Saskatoon
Poverty looks different in different cities. In North American where food costs are more or less similar, you have five factors that influence where you are in relation to the the poverty line that I am going to look at.
- Housing costs
- Transportation costs
- Utility costs (especially heating costs)
- Cost of living, particularly food costs.
Saskatoon has relatively stable heating costs due to SaskEnergy hedging natural gas purchases (see this article for explanation and political controversy) and the medium, we all use natural gas which can be a lot cheaper than home heating fuel. Take a look at this article from 2008 on what happens when oil prices spike and what that can do to home heating bills and the family that live there.
Saskatoon does have high rent. A one bedroom apartment on the east side of the city will run you $1000/month. While there are cheaper apartments, most of those are located in the city’s core neighbourhoods. As housing prices have doubled and tripled, rents have done the same. A quick survey of friends who are renting often described at least a $100/month rental increase last January 1st with a notice of another one coming this January 1st. $200/month increase over one year is very difficult for any family no matter where you are in the economic spectrum.
While Saskatoon Transit does a good job (unless we have had snow or you want to get to the airport), Saskatoon is a city based on freeways and driving. While some American cities like Boston have been shaped by their subways, Saskatoon has been shaped by our cars which means that city attractions and commercial districts are shaped by parking, not ease of access for public access. The Ministry of Social Services has made it easier for it’s clients to get around by making available bus passes for $20/month. A regular adult bus pass is $71.00 and a single trip ticket is $2.75 which seems high but when compared to rates in New York, Boston, or Toronto, it’s about the same.
So Saskatoon has reasonably priced transportation, SaskEnergy does a decent job of hedging natural gas prices to keep our natural gas rates stable rather than fluctuating and food prices are what they are. While we may not like the idea of Wal-Mart dominating the world, their entrance into Saskatoon does keep food prices lower (and makes it even harder for downtown grocery stores to compete). One factor with food prices that gets overlooked is accessibility to reasonably priced food. While Wal-Mart may have the best price on a block of cheese in town, if it costs you a lot to get there, it doesn’t help. I’ll talk some more about this in a moment.
Life Below the Poverty Line
All cities have residents below the poverty line (or as we call it here, the Low Income Cut Off or LICO). A 2009 CUISR research paper described the LICO as this
While family income trends tell us about how many people in Saskatchewan are doing in absolute terms, it is important to examine the ability of the income to provide a reasonable quality of life. Statistics Canada’s Low Income Cut-Offs (LICOs) are widely used to measure poverty in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2006b; Canadian Council on Social Development, n.d.). Statistics Canada (2006c) defines the LICO as the income level at which a family spends 20% more of their income on food, shelter, and clothing than the average family of a comparable size. In 2005, the after-tax LICO was $22,069 per year for a family of three living in a community of 100,000 to 499,999 people and $27,532 per year for a family of four (Statistics Canada, 2006c). In the same year, the poverty line for families in rural areas was $17,071 for a three-person family and $21,296 for a four-person family (Statistics Canada, 2006c). At incomes at or below LICO levels, Saskatchewan residents are using substantially more of their available income to acquire the basics of life compared to their fellow citizens.
CUISR went out and created a snapshot of what low income families in Saskatchewan look like.
Saskatchewan’s Aboriginal citizens and families are consistently overrepresented in low income indicators. Although Aboriginal people have made significant gains in the last 20 years compared to other provincial groups, Statistics Canada’s 2006 Census data indicate that 37% of Saskatchewan’s Aboriginal population was living at or below the LICO (Statistics Canada, 2008a) and Canadian Council on Social Development, n.d.). While this represented a large improvement of 16 percentage points relative to the 1996 Census, Aboriginal peoples continue to experience a much higher poverty level when compared to all persons in Saskatchewan.
When looking at the income levels for people on Social Services CUISR found this
When examining Saskatchewan’s social assistance incomes, an overall decrease in the last decade is evident. Between 1996 and 2005, social assistance incomes eroded in real terms among all recipient groups, by more than 7%; the welfare incomes of people with disabilities on social assistance experienced the greatest drop (by 15.5%).
It should be noted that Saskatchewan raised its social assistance rates in 2008; currently, a single employable person in Saskatoon or Regina would qualify for a benefit of about $8,000 (See Appendix II).
At the end of the day the average Canadian single mother who is below the poverty line is below it by about $7500. When people talk about people living below the poverty line, they are not missing it by a dollar or two.
In my last post, I showed income breakdowns for Saskatoon’s core neighbourhoods. To recap there are 1726 households trying to love on under $15,000 a year and another 1567 households trying to get by under $30,000 a year? Of those families, a staggering 780 of them are trying to get by on under $10,000 per year. How do they live?
Many of the household’s living under $15,000 a year are either on Social Services, struggling by on part time employment or on Social Services (either SAP or TEA). If you are living on Social Services, your income is going to be a lot less than $15,000/year. Check out the current Social Services rate card and do the math on how little money that is.
As the Social Services Rate Card shows, you see that there is around $459 for rent (more on that later) and $255 to cover food, toiletries, clothes, bills, and others. That isn’t a lot of money but it wasn’t until I had it broken down for me by a budget management worker that I realized how little it was.
Months ago I had some staff break down the Social Services rate card. With the new women’s shelter coming online soon, I wanted them to come up with a move out formula that would actually work. Since many of the men and women we deal with are defined as “unemployable” by Social Services, we needed to help them find a way to live within that financial framework. We couldn’t find a way of making it in the slightest without using services provided by the Saskatoon Food Bank, the Friendship Inn, and the Salvation Army. As I reviewed our notes the other day, I saw that we didn’t take into consideration tobacco consumption which makes a really tough financial situation even worse. Here is what we learned…
Impact of Housing Costs
If you are single you have $255 a month after your rent (or most of it) is paid. If you have health concerns like diabetes or a disease like HIV, you get more to cover proper nutrition. That doesn’t sound that bad. I have had three different budget management workers/trustees from different agencies have told me that one can live on that amount as long as the person doesn’t make a single mistake. That amount includes a discounted bus pass and free Leisure Card and your rent is paid… that is if you can somewhere to rent for your allocated amount. Now now problems start.
You can technically live anywhere in town (and therefore leave the inner city behind) but you have some problems. First of all there is the Rental Supplement which you have to qualify for and in today’s rental market you need the Rental Supplement. To qualify for the Rental Supplement, your location in the city (in part) determines whether or not you get it and how much you get. The reality is that if you are living in Riversdale, Pleasant Hill, and areas closer to St. Paul’s or another hospital, increases your chances to get the supplement. Now if you don’t qualify, you need have pay the difference from your personal allowance. This is going to increase your need on services like the Saskatoon Food Bank, The Salvation Army Community Services, Friendship Inn, and other agencies which actually encourages you to live in walking distance to them. Of course even if you do find a place that rents to you, the Ministry of Social Services letter of guarantee is only for the amount of money that you are allowed for housing, which means that you have to come up with the rest in cash to cover your damage deposit. The current system actually encourages a concentration of services and poverty.
Even if you can afford to move into a different part of town, the landlords may not want you there. A client I helped find an apartment for was charged a $50 “viewing fee” to see an apartment. I haven’t met anyone yet who didn’t see that as an attempt to keep people receiving Social Service benefits from seeing the building. Over a period of three or four months, this client, myself, and another social worker was stood up numerous times by landlords on viewings, largely because the client was on Social Services. I was there when the client was told to his face that they “probably won’t rent to someone on welfare”. We had some staff from AIDS Saskatoon in a while ago talking to our staff and we also learned that some landlords are doing a kind of credit check on clients to decide if the client can “afford” the apartment. I was shocked but it’s a story we have heard lots since then. Are any of us surprised that their formula disqualifies low income/Social Services clients? Of course not all landlords are like that. I have met some wonderful ones who are all over the city. In fact the client who I was talking about was helped by a landlord who went out of their way to get this client and family into their apartment because they saw it as the right thing to do. Yet on the other hand we are kidding ourselves if we don’t think that there are some Donald Sterlingesqe landlords out there who are making it very tough on people because of race or class in the city. (if you got the Donald Sterling reference without clicking on the link, I am impressed).
Of course moving in only part of the journey. I was also shocked to find out there are no more move in grants. No money for beds, mop, broom, cleaning supplies, SHOWER CURTAIN, pots and pans. I have access to the donations given to the Salvation Army Community Services (we have a dock for a reason) and all of that was free but even after all of that was said and done, Wendy and I dropped $100 of our own money for essentials and believe me, there was nothing on that list that all of us would not consider an essential.
To be fair there is another alternative to move in grants, if you are on Social Services, you can apply for a twice a year advance of $240 and that would help them set up an apartment but that money comes off their check $40 a month over six months (which takes down the $255/month to $215/month). If for some reason you don’t qualify for the Rental Supplement, you have to pay the difference in rent out of your personal living allowance. Your $255 can quickly become $100. One budget management worker I talked to told me that she practically begs her clients not to take this $240 “windfall” because of the financial problems it can cause later on for them.
Eating Right on Social Services
So you have $255 (or $215 or $100) each month (now there are extra resources if you have selected medical issues) which is anywhere from $53 to $65 (or $25) per week for groceries, hygiene products, and clothes. That causes it’s own problems because where do you get that stuff in Riversdale/Pleasant Hill? There are no low priced grocery stores in easy walking distance (although
there is now one downtown and a small Asian food store on 20h) which makes it difficult to get ahead because you don’t have the resources to buy anything in bulk or take advantage of savings at Costco, Real Canadian Wholesale Club or even Co-op’s big case lot sale? Again you have a lack of financial margin and you have a lack of accessibility to do purchases like this. While Saskatoon has a whole has more vehicles than residents, according to 2006 census data the core neighborhoods have 0.4 cars per person. When I worked at 33rd Street Safeway, once a month we saw a steady stream of cabs pulling up as people on Social Services bought groceries. You have two problems with that happening. A small grocery amount is made a lot smaller by having to take a cab to Safeway (or Supertore/Walmart/Extra Foods/Sobeys) for groceries and you have that money leaving the area (and area that is in need of that money). An even worse decision is those who do their grocery stopping at a convenience store. A couple of times when I worked the 4-12 shift at the Salvation Army, I would run low on change which makes it hard for the front desk to make change for clients who come in and buy breakfast (best $3 breakfast in the city). Once I stopped by a convenience store on the day checks were handed out. I honestly thought a riot had gone through the store. It wasn’t, it was people purchasing groceries. I can’t think of a quicker way to make an already small check, even smaller. Thankfully this has changed somewhat since Giant Tiger came to town but you still have no fresh fruit and vegetables. While I probably could have lived on Giant Tiger’s selection when I was single (Kraft Dinner, Ichiban noodles, Pizza Pops… repeat), it is lacking a lot of stuff that families need and there isn’t the money left over to even purchase a Good Food Box from CHEP.
The other part of the equation that food is a commodity and therefore subject to price fluctuations and is really sensitive to other commodity prices, such as oil. All of this is explained in detail in Why Your World Is About to Get a Whole Lot Smaller by Jeff Rubin and The Long Emergency by James Kunstler who point out the impact that higher oil prices have on farm input costs. As oil goes up, so does fuel for machineries, cost of fertilizers, and more crops get moved from being a food crop and become a fuel crop for ethanol (unlike Brazil which had the foresight not to use a food crop for ethanol, we decided to use corn and maize here, largely in deference to the importance that Iowa places in Presidential primaries). The basic math is higher energy prices equals higher food prices.
Three years ago when gas prices spiked to abnormally high prices we saw the impact on our clientele at work. We went from about 60,000 served meals a year to close to 100,000 meals served a year. Not only were people hit hard by rising energy prices, they were hit hard by the increase in food prices. All around the city you saw charts in restaurants explaining why their prices were going up and why they had to charge more to bring in some more revenue to pay for it. The same thing happened here but the people who used our services didn’t have the option of increasing revenue. We just did an in house survey of why people come to the Salvation Army meal program and the dominant answer given was, “no food at home” and this is a program designed for people who are not receiving benefits from the Ministry of Social Services (and therefore hopefully have more resources). I wish we had done one a couple of years ago. I assume the numbers would have been much, much, higher.
The Lack of Discretionary Income
So even if you have money for food and rent, there are still other expenses… like laundry is another big issue. You get $10 if you are single for laundry and soap and $20 if you are a family. The problem is that a lot of apartments charge $3 for a load and in case you haven’t noticed, there are not a lot of laundromats in town. When we were looking at countless duplexes and fourplexes while trying to find a place for the Mumford House, many houses had a bed room filled five or six feet high full of clothes. That same summer I joined a co-worker to check out a house that had been set on fire (she didn’t want to get punched in the face by the landlord so she brought me along to get punched in the face – luckily for my face, he was pretty cool and not prone to violence). Again in the basement there was clothes piled high enough that neither one us could walk upright down there. Later it finally clicked in that it was cheaper to come to the Salvation Army or the Food Bank every couple of weeks and just get different clothes rather than doing laundry. Anything to save some money.
My point is that, you can make it as long as you don’t make a mistake which in the end, is the Government of Saskatchewan’s goal. Coming up with Social Services rates is tricky business. If you set the amount too low, people just can’t live but if you have too high of an amount, it discourages people from working and you can really upset voters. In the end you get stuck with the number that we have now. Just barely enough for someone to live and definitely not comfortably.
This takes a toll not only on individuals but also on a community if in high enough concentration.
As for the family, I understand a bit of that. My mom raised a family of four of us on $1350 a month plus what we got for Family Allowance. $700 of that was mortgage and the rest was just paying for life. From 1988-89, we kind of totally disengaged from society because we had no money at all. We didn’t go out, we didn’t take weekend trips, we didn’t do anything. There was just no money. We were involved in the church but even things like youth group took money and so I didn’t attend those weeks. Our summer vacation consisted of a trip to a used bookstore on Primrose Drive. They sold a two cubic foot box of books for $1. There was a bunch of Harlequin Books but there was other cool stuff as well… university textbooks, Instant Replay by Jerry Kramer, The Game by Ken Dryden and The Winds of War by Herman Wouk. We went three times and our expenditures outside of bills that summer was a total of $3. That was it. That was all of the extra money we had. I find myself looking back it with some nostalgia but it was a horrible summer and a part of a grind that went on and on and on.
It isn’t just one single thing that poverty does, it just grinds you down day by day by day. My mother was diabetic and living under that kind of financial stress does not lend itself to eating well. She started a downward spiral that took her leg and later contributed to her inability to fight the cancer. Diabetes is called a “disease of poverty” and as a Type II diabetic I understand that now more than I ever did then. On top of the food that is diabetic friendly (which isn’t cheap), I now spend $100/month to control the nerve pain. Neuragen and Alpha Lipolic acid aren’t covered by the Saskatchewan Drug Plan (while highly addictive Oxycontin which does nothing for the pain was covered). Poor quality food, inadequate diabetic care, and enormous stress. I didn’t realize it at the time but in a lot of ways, those years changed all of us for the worse. We withdrew from our community, our friends, and an edge developed that has probably stuck with me for far too long. There wasn’t one thing that did it, we just got ground down and that was only a couple of years of it.
We have seen the impact on poverty on an entire region. One of the most enjoyable things I had the opportunity to do while as the pastor of Lakeland Church in Spiritwood was listening to some of the older members of the church tell their stories of the Great Depression. Those stories all started light hearted and funny and then turned serious and sombre as the years took their tool and the stories got darker. Don’t take my word for it, read Pierre Berton’s book, The Great Depression and read the stories yourself. If you are looking for a current version of it, read this eye opening series called The New Poor in the New York Times.
Intergenerational poverty leads to despair and this is the root of much of the gang violence and social dysfunction in today’s aboriginal communities.
I would argue that Cuthand is too specific and intergenerational poverty is the cause of social dysfunction in any community but his point is right on. He goes on to link poverty to the rise of gangs in aboriginal neighbourhoods but he could be speaking of any community.
Gang activity is commonplace among disadvantaged minority groups including Afro-American, Hispanic and aboriginal groups. They are drawn together by a sense of race, protection and shared experience. When the economic and social doors are closed or hard to open, people tend to turn to illegal activity as a quick fix. Couple this with drug and alcohol addiction and you have the recipe for young people to group together in gangs.
Gang life is hard with few real rewards. Recruiters let the uninitiated think that in a gang they will get the iPod, the fancy car and other status symbols. Gang activities include violence, robbery, prostitution and drug dealing. In the end the reality is nothing compared to the dream presented by the gang recruiters.
When gang members reach their late 20s they have no education or work experience, they have rap sheets as long as their arms and they most likely have a drug problem. They are burned out and unemployable.
And those are the lucky ones. Some will be killed and still others will do life for murder or other long stretches for their crimes. The dream of the 15-year-old for power and wealth is gone and it never existed.
All of this starts to explain a bit of what happened to 20th Street and the city core neighbourhoods in general. I used to enjoy 20th Street. It was home of to Joe’s Cycle and Walter’s Cycle. Along with the Mayfair Sporting Goods, they took most of my discretionary income. It was home to some great restaurants. For many years The Golden Dragon was the finest restaurant in town (visited by Bill Cosby, Bing Crosby, Dean Martin, John Diefenbaker, Wayne and Shuster, Pierre Trudeau, Gordie Howe and many others). Many hockey/softball/rugby/football seasons finished up in a banquet room at the Wah Qua restaurant. 20th Street used to have it’s own particular vibe in the same way Broadway does now but things changed.
One of the things that have bothered me as I read The Life and Death of the American City by urban theorist Jane Jacobs is that she speaks of a strong neighbourhood bond is needed to maintain safety and prosperity in a community. I kept wondered what happened to it in parts of Saskatoon. The answer is found in bits and pieces in a variety of books I read this summer (at the end of this series I’ll post a reading list if you want to read more) but the short answer is that poverty grinds away those ties that keep a community together, especially when poverty is concentrated. (which I think is at the core of what Pat Lorje is saying and something I’ll spend some time exploring when I post the next post in this series Monday night).
A decade ago there wasn’t the need for the concentration of poverty in Saskatoon. In 1997, a great apartment I had in a fun part of City Park went for $250 a month. I was making a little over minimum wage working at Burron Lumber. The combination of low rent, great location, and a simple lifestyle (bills were food, phone, and $268 car payment) meant that despite making minimum wage, I had money to spend. I watched every Rider game at Seafood Sam’s with a pacing, anxious, chain smoking Sam himself living and dying with every Saskatchewan Roughriders win and loss, and we used to walk down to a downtown coffee shop named Nervous Harold’s many nights for a iced coffee and a late supper. By choice I didn’t have a television but I had money to spend to enjoy life around Saskatoon. I don’t have any vices but I think I could have even afforded to smoke a bit. Today that very small one room apartment is going for almost $800/month, which is more than my mortgage. To find an affordable apartment on minimum wage, I can’t live in City Park unless I want to pick up a second job which grinds one down in a different way. Over the years both Wendy and I have worked two jobs when we have needed to. What seems sustainable at first slowly grinds you down in different ways and you have that same kind of withdrawal from your community, often from fatigue and exhaustion. Again back to Doug Cuthand’s comments.
When the economic and social doors are closed or hard to open, people tend to turn to illegal activity as a quick fix.
This was best articulated to me when I was at a Correctional Services of Canada seminar on women’s corrections. One of the things that was mentioned throughout the day was what many women in poverty will have to do to survive. It ranges from robbery, prostitution, drug dealing… the illegal activities that we all see in Saskatoon but never really get to what is really causing them. When caught in poverty, you have to turn somewhere. I have heard the police talk about prostitutes starting working the street and losing their virginity to johns at 13. The girls often recruit each other as they see it as a good source of easy money without ever having the chance to realize the cost they are about to pay. Again, its the pursuit of the iPods, cars, or as I wrote about a couple of years ago, even food. There is what Cuthand said, an easy turn to the riches that gangs offer up (read the first chapter of Freakonomics to see that most gangs pay very poorly at the bottom of the pyramid). Or there is a turn to substance abuse… beer, hard liquor, crack, meth, modelling glue, solvents, paint, Lysol, Listerine, methadone, hand sanitizer, you name it, I have seen it abused. It starts out as an escape and turns into a prison and later a personal version of hell.
This kind of aligns itself with a conversation I had a with a local politician who said to me that they were surprised at the level of racial anger they have heard lately. Being married to someone of mixed Guyanese descent (Amerindian, Bihari, British, and Black according to her DNA tests), racism has always both interested and concerns me. Racism (which is going both ways) seems to be coming out the micro economic future that people are looking at. It’s their personal economy that doesn’t work. Income doesn’t cover rent or food which creates a lack of hope. Soon the the despair sets in, especially when you realize that hard work won’t deliver you out of this and it gives to anger and a need to blame someone else. You see this in American political and race rhetoric. How many times did Lou Dobbs say, “These Mexican illegal’s are taking good American jobs” which ignores the fact that American’s don’t want them and the jobs aren’t very good in the first place. Is it a coincidence that Roma’s in France are being persecuted during a time of difficult economic times?
During the times that my family was at our poorest and things looked extremely bleak, I never had any doubt that eventually life would turn around and things were going to be better one day if I worked hard. To use Doug Cuthand’s language, the door was pretty easy to open. My first apartment was in a prime downtown neighbourhood for $250 and affordable with a minimum wage job. Your options are limited today if you do not have what many would define as a high paying job or are a one wage earning household.
I have spent hours this week trying to articulate the change in the residents of the shelter over the last four years. It clicked in today that the difference was that there has been a loss of hope. The wages haven’t changed but everything else has gotten more expensive and less accessible. While I have only lived in Saskatoon since 1984, I have been here long enough to see some bad times before the good times hit. While a large majority of Saskatoon has benefitted from the economic prosperity that has come to Saskatoon. Not all have. Of course the question that all cities have is, “what’s the best way to address this?” I’ll start looking at solutions on Tuesday.